A Team of Hard Working Laboratory Scientists have Just discovered an Impossible Cell which is an Impossible Eukaryotic Cell (Such as Animal Cell) specifically this new one discovered Lacks Mitochondria which is the power house of every Eukaryotic Cell.
Eukaryotic Cell Found That Lacks Mitochondria as Scientists Discover an Impossible Cell which is Impossible and eukaryote somehow powers along without its cellular powerhouses known as Mitochondria.
Eukaryotic cells make up complex organisms like humans and trees and can exist as single-celled organisms such as amoebas and paramecia. These cells contain a nucleus by definition as well as a number of organelles (”little organs”) that carry out specific functions for the cell, like protein synthesis.
Although all eukaryotes were thought to contain organelles known as mitochondria, which serve as “powerhouses” and produce an essential energy-carrying molecule known as ATP, scientists have discovered a single-celled eukaryote that lacks these critical mitochondria—an unprecedented finding.
While sequencing the genome for Monocercomonoides, a group of organisms related to Giardia and Trichomonas, scientists were surprised to find no evidence of mitochondrial DNA nor of the proteins necessary for the mitochondria to exist.
These organisms live in low-oxygen environments, and it seems that they have been able to survive without mitochondria, thanks to an energy system used by bacteria. The discovery raises fascinating questions about the evolution of these unique eukaryotes and rewrites previous assumptions about the requirements for eukaryotic life.
Mitochondria have long been thought to be the normal engine of a eukaryotic cell and one that was essential for the survival of fungi, plants, animals and other organisms. Now, a single-cell microbe has been discovered that does not contain one. It was once thought that Giardia intestinalis, a microbe that causes diarrhea, was without a mitochondria but upon closer inspection, both it and other candidates were only false alarms and turned out to contain modified versions of the organelles.
Mitochondria have undergone many changes over the course of evolution, with some becoming basically derivatives of one. The organelles themselves are the remnants of bacteria that integrated into primordial cells and eventually become the workhorse for their hosts.
The Endosymbiotic origin of Mitochondria
The Researchers at Charles University in Prague have now investigated a new prospective candidate, a single-celled organism that lives in the intestines of a chinchilla, one that also happens to be a pet of a lab member. This microbe was selected because it is part of the genus Monocercomonoides, a group suggested to be lacking mitochondria.
First they sequenced the genome of the Monocercomonoides and saw that it did not contain any genes from mitochondrial DNA (mitochondria contain their own genome.) On further investigation, they were not able to detect any of the proteins that are critical for the function of the organelle. “The definition of eukaryotic cells is that they have mitochondria,” said Anna Karnkowska, the lead author of the study. “We overturn this definition.”
A Monocercomonoides cell
According to Dr. Naoji Yubuki It’s possible that because of its typical environment, chinchilla guts, where oxygen is scarce and nutrients are abundant, it has no need for mitochondria. The researchers suggest that it harbors special cytoplasmic enzymes that allow it to metabolize food and generate energy. To fulfill other needs normally serviced by mitochondria, it has bacterial genes for those such as the synthesis of iron and sulfur clusters required for protein function.
How does a Cell Jettison a Mitochondria?
Evolutionary genomicist B. Franz Lang of the University of Montreal in Canada commented, “It’s a very solid paper experimentally. If you’d like me to bet, I’d give them 90% probability that they are correct.
” He would like to see the researchers strengthen their case by performing a very detailed microscopic analysis to confirm the absence of the organelles.
Mark van der Giezen, an evolutionary biochemist of the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom, would also like to see further evidence that Monocercomonoides doesn’t contain rudimentary mitochondria. Regardless, he says, this study broadens our view of eukaryotes’ capabilities.
“It shows that eukaryotic life is more flexible than what the textbooks say
”Monocercomonoidesis not some ancient microbe hailing from times of the earliest eukaryotes, Karnkowska says. The closest relatives it has still contain small mitochondria, so it may have jettisoned the organelles in fairly recent evolutionary terms. She and her colleagues think that there are other mitochondria-free eukaryotes awaiting discovery.
“This is one striking example, and I hope we can find others,” she says.
See More Photos of The Research Below…
168 total views, 1 views today